Banks/Banking in United States
Banking in United States is regulated by federal as well as state governments. The U.S. short-term liabilities are 15% as on October, 2008 representing the GDP of the United States or its national debt o 43%, and the average leverage ration of the bank is 12 to 1.
System of banking
Banking in United States is distinguished into national banks, state banks and private banks. National banks were established under the authority of federal law,
while the state banks were organized with the provisions of banking acts of various states and the private institutions sprung without the authorization of general or any special statute. In 1900s, the national banks were 3732, state banks were 4369 and private banks were over 6000.
The national banks have a dominant and central position in our system as they are partly regulated and supervised by the federal government. They are partly regulated owing to the convenient correspondents for the private and state banks, and also partly because they enjoy monopoly of issuing the right of note. Their characteristics are apparent in the regulations pertaining to deposits and note issues.
Private Banks in United States are free from statutory regulation and do not fall under the regular banking acts that control corporate institutions. They are required to publish accounts or even to make a report to any state or national officer based on their condition. The efficient regulations of this bank are subjected to the nature of the business engaged.
The bank cannot live itself alone and so necessary connection with other institutions result in efficient supervision and in the recent times it has been sufficient to avoid great abuse from the free banking principle. Institutions falling under National Banking Act invest in registered bonds of the United States to the par value that it can issue notes and provide the market value.
The latest report from the comptroller of this country estimated the bank currency amount as on July 1, 1900 as National bank notes $300,161,552 and Deposits as 4,008,686,609.
The top banks in United States are ranked by their total deposits. The banks in United States that leads as on June 30, 2009 is the Bank of America with 817,989, JP Morgan with 618,124,000, Wachovia Bank with 394,189,004, Wells Fargo Bank with 325,417,000, Citibank with 265,947,879, U.S.Bank with 151,902,585, and many such as HSBC, Regions Bank, SunTrust Bank, National City Bank, and more.